STIs are sexually transmitted infections, which spread from one person to another. They can also be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Symptoms of STIs include vaginal discharge, urethral discharge, burning, and genital ulcers. Approximately 200 million people worldwide suffer from a specific type of STI each year. The effects of STIs on the health of both men and women are enormous. It is becoming more important in recent times to visit a sexual health clinic as the earlier an STI is detected and an STI test is done the sooner a long term solution can be made.
A sexually transmitted infection (STI) is caused by a parasite or bacteria that spreads from one partner to another during sexual intercourse. It can also be spread nonsexually, such as via shared needles. Although most sexually transmitted infections cause no symptoms, some of them can be serious. These conditions can affect both sexes and are spread to the other person through blood, saliva or skin-to-skin contact.
The first step in treating an STI is to seek medical attention. Often, symptoms are very similar to those of a common infection such as fever, sore throat, or swollen lymph nodes. Often, sexually transmitted diseases are asymptomatic, but if left untreated, can lead to serious complications. Chlamydia is an example. In addition to causing painful or itchy genitals, chlamydia can also cause sores or blisters. If left untreated, these diseases can lead to serious complications, including cancer and AIDS.
Treatments for sexually transmitted infection (STI) can range from anti-biotics to home remedies. Most of the time, doctors in a sexual health clinic will prescribe a prescription medication to eliminate the infection. For some STIs, such as chlamydia, a doctor will recommend antiviral drugs. Home remedies and lifestyle changes may be prescribed to ease symptoms and promote healing. Sometimes, over-the-counter medications can help prevent recurrence of the infection.
While some infections can only be transferred through sexual contact, others are passed through infected needles or through the air. The CDC recommends testing for gonorrhea and chlamydia in women younger than 25. While the majority of STIs do not cause long-term health problems, HIV can lead to lifelong medication. However, prevention is key. For example, condoms are a great way to prevent STDs.
Antibiotics are the most common treatment for most STIs, but they have also bred drug resistance in many species. Some gonorrhea strains are no longer responsive to last-line therapy, indicating that the current recommended treatment is no longer effective. Drug-resistant organisms, or “superbugs,” have the ability to evade the effects of multiple drugs and are now considered resistant to many types of therapy. While drug resistance due to sexually transmitted infections is rare in the United States, it is common in many countries around the world. Bacteria are able to acquire resistance through horizontal gene transfer and can become multi-drug-resistant through a number of mechanisms.
STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and syphilis, which are a significant public health problem. When left untreated, these infections can lead to serious illness and even death. As such, new guidelines from the World Health Organization emphasize the importance of getting treatment for sexually transmitted infections early, using the right antibiotic, and monitoring antibiotic resistance in countries where the infection is prevalent.
Infection from sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs, is very common and affects all age groups. About half of all STD cases in the U.S. occur in people under 25. Because more people are becoming sexually active and having more than one sex partner, the number of cases is rising. Many STDs have no symptoms and spread through sexual contact. Some STDs can even spread to the womb, leading to complications like tubal pregnancy and infertility.
While there are no foolproof methods of prevention, staying with a single partner who is not infected is one of the most effective methods of protection. In addition to condoms, dental dams, and daily HIV testing are other safe ways to avoid STIs. STIs are more common in younger people with risk factors for HIV should consider daily PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis).